I saw in my dream that
Christian went forth not alone; for there was one whose name
was Hopeful (being so made by looking upon Christian and
Faithful in their words and behavior while suffering at the
fair), who joined him. Thus one died to show faithfulness to
the truth, and another rose out of his ashes to be a
companion with Christian in his pilgrimage. This Hopeful
also told Christian that there were many more of the men in
the fair that would take their time and follow after.
OF FAIR SPEECH
I saw that, quickly after they were got out of the fair,
they overtook one that was going before them whose name was
By-ends; so they said to him, “What countryman, sir? And
how far go you this way?” He told them that he came from
the town of Fair-speech, and he was going to the Celestial city;
but told them not his name.
CHRISTIAN. From Fair-speech! do any who are good
BY-ENDS. Yes, I hope.
CHRISTIAN. Pray, sir, what may I call you?
BY-ENDS. I am a stranger to you, and you to me:
if you be going this way, I shall be glad of your company;
if not, I must be content.
CHRISTIAN. This town of Fair-speech, I have heard
of; and they say it’s a wealthy place.
BY-ENDS. Yes, I assure you that it is; and I have
many rich kindred there.
CHRISTIAN. Pray, who are your kindred there? if
I may be so bold as to ask.
BY-ENDS. Almost the whole town; but in particular
my Lord Turnabout, my Lord Timeserver, my Lord Fair-speech,
from whose ancestors that town first took its name; also Mr.
Smooth-man, Mr. Facing-both-ways, Mr. Anything; and our parson,
CHRISTIAN. Are you a married man?
BY-ENDS. Yes, and my wife is Lady Feigning’s daughter:
therefore she came of a very honorable family. ‘Tis true we
somewhat differ in religion from those of the stricter sort,
yet but in two small points: First, we never strive against
wind and tide; secondly, we are always most zealous when Religion
is well dressed and goes in his silver slippers; we love much
to walk with him in the street if the sun shines and the people
Christian stepped a little aside to his friend Hopeful, saying, “I
think that this is By-ends, of Fair-speech; and if it be
he, we have as great a rascal in our company as lives in
all these parts. I will ask him.”
Christian came up with him again, and said,
“Sir, is not your name Mr. By-ends, of Fair-speech?”
BY-ENDS. This is not my name; but a nickname that
is given me by some that cannot abide me.
CHRISTIAN. But did you never give a cause to men
to call you by that name?
BY-ENDS. Never, never! The worst that ever I did
to give them a cause to call me this name was that I had always
the luck to jump with the turning of the tide, and to gain
CHRISTIAN. I thought, indeed, that you were the
man that I heard of; now, if you go with us, you must go against
wind and tide; you must also own Religion in his rags, as well
as in his silver slippers; and stand by him, too, when bound
in irons, as well as when he walks the streets with applause.
BY-ENDS. You must not lord it over my faith; leave
it to my liberty, and let me go with you.
CHRISTIAN. Not a step farther, unless you will
do what I say, as we do.
BY-ENDS. “I never desert my old principles, since
they are harmless and profitable. If I may not go with you,
I must do as I did before you overtook me, even go by myself,
until some overtake me that will be glad of my company.”
FRIENDS OF MR. BY-ENDS
saw in my dream that Christian and Hopeful forsook him, and
went on their way. But one of them, looking back, saw three
men following Mr. By-ends. Their names were Mr. Hold-the-world,
Mr. Money-love, and Mr. Save-all; men who, when boys, had
been school fellows with Mr. By-ends. They were taught by
Mr. Gripe-man, a schoolmaster in Love-gain, which is a market
town in the county of Coveting, in the North. This schoolmaster
taught them the art of getting, wither by violence, cheating,
flattery, lying, or by putting on a pretense of religion.
Mr. Money-love said to Mr. By-ends, “Who are they upon the road
before us?” for Christian and Hopeful were yet within view.
BY-ENDS. They are a couple of far countrymen that
are going on a pilgrimage.
MONEY-LOVE. Alas! why did they not wait, so that
we might have had their good company?
BY-ENDS. These men are so rigid, and love so much
their own notions, and care so little for the opinions of others,
that, let a man be ever so godly, yet, if he agrees not with
them in all things, they thrust him out of their company.
SAVE-ALL. That is bad; but we read of some that
are righteous overmuch. But, what matters were there wherein
BY-ENDS. Why, they feel they must journey in all
weathers; and I am for waiting for wind and tide. They risk
all for God any time; and I am for taking all advantages to
secure my life and property. They are for holding their notions,
though all other men be against them; but I am for Religion
in so far as the times and my safety suit it. They are for
Religion when in rags and contempt; but I am for him when he
walks in his golden slippers, in the sunshine, and with applause.
HOLD-THE-WORLD. For my part, I can count him a
fool, that, having the liberty to keep what he has, shall be
so unwise as to lose it. Let us be wise as serpents. It is
best to make hay while the sun shines. You see how the bee
lieth still all winter, and bestirs her only when she can have
profit and pleasure. God sends sometimes rain and sometimes
sunshine; if they be such fools to go through the rain, yet
let us be content to take fair weather along with us.
and Solomon grew rich in religion; and Job says that “a good
man should lay up gold as dust”; but he must not be such
as the men before us, if they be as you have described them.
SAVE-ALL. I think that we are all agreed that it
is a wise and good plan to become religious so as to get all
you can thereby.
so these four men, Mr. By-ends, Mr. Money-love, Mr. Save-all,
and old Mr. Hold-the-world, walked on together, while Christian
and Hopeful were far in advance. They were so sure they were
right in this matter that they called to Christian and Hopeful,
in order to put the question to them.
they stopped and when these four men had come up, Mr. Hold-the-world
asked Christian and Hopeful about the matter in question.
CHRISTIAN. Your question is so simple that even
a babe in Christ could answer it. Religion is not for the purpose
of getting and enjoying this world. One does not have to become
religious for that. No true Christian follows Christ for the
loaves and fishes. Only heathen, hypocrites, devils, and witches
are of that opinion.
was of that kind of religion. He held the money-bag, so that
he might have what was in it, for he was a thief. But he
was lost, cast out, forsaken, and became the son of perdition.
this answer they stood staring at one another but did not
know what to say. Hopeful said he thought Christian was right.
So there was a long silence among them. Then Christian
and Hopeful went on ahead, and Christian said, “If these
men cannot stand before the word of men like you and me,
what will they do when they stand before the judgment bar
of god almighty?”
Christian and Hopeful went on till they came to a delicate
plain, called Ease, where they went with much content; but
that plain was so narrow they quickly got over it. Now at
the farther side of that plain was a little hill, called
Lucre, and in that hill a silver mine. Some of them that
had formerly gone that way, because of the rarity of it,
had turned aside to see this, but going too near the brink
of the pit, the ground gave way, and, falling in, they were
slain; some also had been maimed there and could not to their
dying day be themselves again.
I saw in my dream that a little off the road, over against
the silver mine, stood Demas (gentleman-like) to call to
passengers to come and see; who said to Christian and his
“Ho! turn aside hither, and I will show you a thing.”
CHRISTIAN. What thing so important as to turn us
out of the way?
Here is a silver mine, and some digging in it for treasure;
if you will come, with a little trouble you may get rich.
HOPEFUL. Let us go see.
CHRISTIAN. Not I. I have heard of this place before
now, and how many there have been slain; and besides, that
treasure is a snare to those that seek it.
Then Christian called to Demas, saying, “Is not the place dangerous?
Hath it not hindered many in their pilgrimage?”
Not very dangerous, except to those that are careless. But
he blushed as he spoke.
said Christian to Hopeful, “Let us not stir a step, but still
keep on our way.”
Demas called out again, saying, “But will you not come over
Christian roundly answered, saying, “Demas, you are an enemy
to the right ways of the Lord of this way, and have been
already condemned for turning aside. Why do you seek to lead
us into the same trouble?”
cried again that he also was a pilgrim and that if they would
tarry a little, he would join them.
CHRISTIAN. What is your name? Is it not Demas?
Yes, my name is Demas; I am the son of Abraham.
CHRISTIAN. I know you; Gehazi was your great-grandfather,
and Judas your father, and you have trod in their steps. It
is but a devilish prank that you play. Your father was hanged
for a traitor, and you deserve no better reward. So they went
on their way.
END OF MR. BY-ENDS
this time by-ends
and his companions were come again within sight, and they
at the first call went over to Demas. Now, whether they fell
into the pit by looking over the brink, or whether they went
down to dig, or whether they were smothered in the bottom
by the damps that commonly arise, of these things I am not
certain; but this I observed, that they never were seen again
in the way. Then sang Christian:
“By-ends and silver Demas both agree;
calls: the other runs, that he may be
sharer in his lucre; so these two
up in this world, and no farther go.”
OF THE WATER OF LIFE
saw, then, that they went on their way to a pleasant river,
which David the king
called “the river of God,” but john,
“the river of the water of life.” Now their way lay along the
bank of this river; here, therefore, Christian and his companion
walked with great delight; they drank also of the water of
the river, which was pleasant and enlivening to their weary
the banks of this river on either side were green trees that
bore all manner of fruit; and the leaves they ate to prevent
illness, especially such diseases as befall pilgrims in their
travels. On either side of the river was also a meadow, curiously
beautified with lilies, and green all the year long. In this
meadow they lay down and slept, for here they might lie down
safely. When they awoke, they gathered again the fruit of
the trees and drank again of the water of the river, and
they lay down again to sleep. This they did several days
and nights. Then they sang:
ye, how these crystal streams do glide,
comfort pilgrims by the highway-side;
meadows green, besides their fragrant smell,
dainties for them; and he who can tell
pleasant fruit, yea, leaves, these trees do yield,
soon sell all, that he may buy this field.”
when they were disposed to go on (for they were not as yet
at their journey’s end) they ate and drank, and departed.
I beheld in my dream that they had not journeyed far until
the river and the way for a time parted, at which they were
very sorry; for the way away from the river was rough and
hurt their feet. As they went on, they wished for a smoother
little before them there was, at the left of the road, a
meadow, and a stile to go over into it, and that meadow is
called By-path Meadow. Then said Christian to his fellow, “If
this meadow lies along by our wayside, let’s go over it.” Then
he went to the stile to see; and the path lay along by the
way of the other side of the fence. “It is according to my
wish,” said Christian; “here is the easiest going. Come,
good Hopeful, and let us go over.”
HOPEFUL. But what if this path should lead us out
of the way?
CHRISTIAN. That is not likely. Look, does it not
go along by the wayside?
being persuaded by Christian, followed him over the stile.
When they were over, and were into the path, they found it
very easy to their feet. Looking before them they saw a man
walking as they did, and his name was Vain-Confidence; so
they called after him, and asked him whither that way led.
He said, “To the Celestial Gate.”
said Christian, “did not I tell you so? By this you may see
we are right.” So they followed, and he went before them. But
the night came on, and it grew very dark; so they that were
behind lost sight of him that went before. He, therefore, that
went before (Vain-confidence by name) not seeing the way before
him, fell into a deep pit, which was on purpose there made
by the prince of those grounds to catch careless fools, and
he was dashed in pieces by his fall.
Christian and his friend heard him fall. So they called to
know the matter; but there was none to answer, only they
heard a groaning.
said Hopeful, “Where are we now?” But Christian was silent,
knowing that he had led him out of the way. Then it began
to rain, and thunder, and lightning in a most dreadful manner,
and the water began to rise.
Hopeful groaned, saying, “O that I had kept on my way!”
CHRISTIAN. Who could have thought that this path
would lead us out of the way?
HOPEFUL. I was afraid at first, and therefore gave
you that gentle caution. I would have spoken plainer, but you
are older than I.
CHRISTIAN. Good brother, be not offended. I am
very sorry I have put thee into such great danger. Forgive
me: I did not do it with any evil intent.
HOPEFUL. Be comforted, my brother, for I forgive
thee, and believe, too, that this shall be for our good.
CHRISTIAN. I am glad I have with me a merciful
brother; but we must not stand still; let us try to go back
HOPEFUL. But, good brother, let me go before.
CHRISTIAN. No, let me go first, that, if there
be any danger, I may be first to meet it, because by me we
both lost the way.
HOPEFUL. No, you shall not go first; for your mind
being troubled may lead you out of the way again.
for their encouragement they heard the voice of one saying, “Let
thine heart be toward the highway, even the way that thou
wentest; turn again.”
the waters were greatly risen, and the way back was very
dangerous. It is always easier going out of the way when
we are in, than going back when we are out of it. Yet they
undertook to go back; but it was so dark, and the flood was
so high, that they like to have been drowned nine or ten
could they, with all the skill they had, get back to the
stile that night. So, at last finding a little shelter, they
sat down there until daybreak; but, being weary, they fell
there was, not far from the place where they lay, a castle,
called Doubting Castle, the owner whereof was Giant Despair,
and it was in his grounds they now were sleeping.
morning, while walking very early about his grounds, the
Giant caught Christian and Hopeful still asleep. Then, with
a grim and surly voice, he bade them awake, and asked then
whence they were, and what they did in his grounds. They
told him they were pilgrims and had lost their way.
said the Giant, “You have this night trespassed in my grounds,
and therefore you must go along with me.” So they were forced
to go, because he was stronger than they. They had also but
little to say, for they knew they were in fault.
drove them before him and put them into his castle, into
a dark dungeon, nasty and evil smelling to the spirits of
these two men. Here they lay from Wednesday morning till
Saturday night, without on bit of bread or drop of drink,
or light, or any to ask how they did; they were, therefore,
here in a bad fix. Christian had double sorrow, because it
was through his thoughtless haste that they were brought
into this distress.
Giant Despair had a wife, whose name was Diffidence. So,
when he was gone to bed, he told his wife what he had done;
to wit, that he had taken a couple of prisoners and cast
them into his dungeon for trespassing on his grounds. Then
he asked her what to do further with them. She advised him
that next morning, he should beat them without any mercy.
So, when he arose, he took a great crab-tree cudgel, and
went to their dungeon.
he began to abuse them as if they were dogs, although they
had never spoken harshly to him. Then he beat them fearfully,
so that they were not able to help themselves, or even turn
on the floor. After this, he left them there to sorrow over
their misery and to mourn under their distress. So all that
day they spent their time in nothing but sighs and bitter
grief. The next night she, talking with her husband about
them, advised him to tell them to take their own lives.
the next morning, he went to them with surly manner, and
told them that, since they were likely never to come out
of that place, their only way would be to make an end of
themselves, either with knife, halter, or poison. “For why,” said
“should you choose life, seeing it is attended with so much
bitterness?” But they desired him to let them go.
he rushed to them and had doubtless made an end of them himself,
but he fell into one of his fits (for he sometimes, in sunshiny
weather, fell into fits), and lost for a time the use of
his hands. So he left them as before to consider what to
do. Then did the prisoners consult between themselves, whether
it was best to take his advice or no; and thus they spoke:
CHRISTIAN. Brother, what shall we do? The life
we now live is miserable. For my part, I know not whether is
best, to live thus, or to die out of hand. “My soul chooseth
strangling rather than life, and the grave is more easy for
me than this dungeon.” Shall we be ruled by the giant?
HOPEFUL. Indeed, our present condition is dreadful;
and death would be far more welcome to me than to live on here.
But yet, let us think: the Lord of the country to which we
are going hath said, “Thou shalt do no murder,” no, not to
another man’s person; much more, then, are we forbidden to
take his advice to kill ourselves. And, as for ease in the
grave, hast thou forgotten the hell, whither, for certain,
the murderers go? for, no murderer hath eternal life.”
knows but that God, who made the world, may cause Giant Despair
to die? or that, at some time or other, he may forget to
lock us in? or that he may, in short time, have another of
his fits before us, and he may lose the use of his limbs?
I am resolved to pluck up the heart of a man, and try my
utmost to get from under his bond. Let us be patient and
endure awhile; the time may come that may give us a happy
release; but let us not be our own murderers.
these words, Hopeful at present did calm the mind of his
brother; so they continued together in the dark that day,
in their sad and doleful condition.
towards evening, the giant went down into the dungeon again,
to see if his prisoners had taken his counsel. But, when
he came there, he found them alive; and truly, alive was
all; for now, what for want of bread and water, and by reason
of the wounds they received when he beat them, they could
do little but breathe. Yet, he fell into a terrible rage,
and told them that, seeing they had disobeyed his counsel,
it should be worse with them than if they had never been
this they trembled greatly, and I think Christian fell into
a swoon; but, coming a little to himself again, they renewed
their discourse about the giant’s advice and whether yet
they had best to take it or no. Now, Christian again seemed
for doing it; but Hopeful made his second reply as followeth:
HOPEFUL. My brother, remember how brave you have
been. Apollyon could not crush you, nor could all the terrors
of the Valley of the Shadow of Death. Remember how you played
the man at Vanity Fair, and were neither afraid of the chain,
nor cage, nor yet of bloody death. Let us, to avoid the same
that is unbecoming to a Christian, bear up with patience as
well as we can.
night, the old giant and his wife renewed their talking of
their prisoners; and the old giant wondered that he could
neither by his blows nor counsel bring them to death. And,
with that, his wife replied, “I fear that they live in hope
that some will come to relieve them; or that they have pick-locks
about them, by the means of which they hope to escape.” “And sayest thou so, my dear?” said the giant: “I will therefore
search them in the morning.”
night, about midnight, they began to pray, and continued
in prayer till almost break of day.
a little before day, good Christian said, “What a fool am
I to lie in a foul-smelling dungeon, when I may as well walk
in liberty1 I have a key in my bosom called Promise, that
will, I am sure, open any lock in Doubting Castle.
said Hopeful, “That is good news, good brother: pluck it
out of thy bosom, and try.”
THE KEY OF PROMISE
Christian pulled it out of his bosom, and began to try the
dungeon door, whose bolt gave back, and the door flew open
with ease, and Christian and Hopeful both came out. Then
he went to the outward door that leads into the castle yard,
and with his key opened that door also. After, he went to
the iron gate, for that must be opened too; that lock, though
exceedingly hard, yet finally opened.
they thrust open the gate to make their escape with speed
but that gate as it opened, made such a creaking, that it
waked Giant Despair who, hastily rising to pursue his prisoners,
felt his limbs to fail; for his fits took him again, so that
he could by no means go after them. Then they went on, and
came to the King’s highway again, and so were safe because
they were out of Giant Despair’s rule.
over the stile, they agreed to build there a pillar, and
to engrave upon the side this sentence: “Over this stile
is the way to Doubting Castle, which is kept by Giant Despair,
who despiseth the King of the Celestial Country, and seeks
to destroy His holy pilgrims.”
pilgrims afterwards read this warning and escaped the danger.
on their way, the pilgrims sang as follows:
of the way we went, and then we found
to tread upon forbidden ground:
let them that come after have a care,
heedlessness make them as we to fare;
they for trespassing his prisoners are
Castle’s Doubting, and whose name’s Despair.”