David Anointed to be King

Scripture Passage: 
1 Samuel 16:1-23

INTRODUCTION: This chapter initiates a major shift in the First Book of Samuel. The first seven chapters (1 Samuel 1-7) describe The Rule of Samuel . The next eight chapters (1 Samuel 8-15) tell the story of The Reign of Saul . Now, even though Saul continues to reign through to the end of the book, this portion of Samuel (chapters 16-31) emphasizes The Rise of David . From now on, David is the center of the biblical story and Saul is seen chiefly as the number one enemy of David.

In this chapter, Samuel anoints David as the next king and God has finally chosen His man to rule over Israel. Although God selected Saul, He selected him to please the selfish demands of the Israelites for a king so that they could be like the other nations. The Bible reveals that God had plans for Israel to have a king at some point (see Deuteronomy 17:14-20). However, Saul was not in God’s perfect timing and so He gave Israel a king after their own desire – one who “from his shoulders and upward . . . was higher than any of the people” (1 Samuel 9:2). Saul was a man’s man and had the image of the king desired by Israel.

However, David was God’s man. Though he was handsome in the flesh (“of a beautiful countenance”), he did not have the imposing physical appearance that brought awe. He was rather young and “ruddy.” But the Lord had “sought him a man after his own heart” (1 Samuel 13:14) and had found him in David. David, therefore, became “the man who was raised up on high, the anointed of the God of Jacob, and the sweet psalmist of Israel” (2 Samuel 23:1); he went forth to fulfill all God’s will (Acts 13:22) and “served his own generation by the will of God” (Acts 13:36). What a difference we see between Saul and David. One impressed men by his exterior appearance; the other impressed God by the condition of his heart.

  1. SAMUEL’S TRIP TO BETHLEHEM (1 Samuel 16:1-5)
    1. Sent to Anoint a King (1 Samuel 16:1)
      1. God has rejected Saul (1 Samuel 13:13-14; 1 Samuel 15:23).
      2. Fill your horn with oil (1 Kings 1:39; Psalm 92:10).
      3. Go to the sons of Jesse of Bethlehem (Isaiah 11:1, 10).
      4. The Lord has provided a king among his sons.
    2. Given a Divine Alibi (1 Samuel 16:2-3)
      1. Samuel’s fear of Saul (1 Samuel 16:2a)
      2. God’s solution (1 Samuel 16:2b-3)
        1. Take an heifer for sacrifice (1 Samuel 16:2).
        2. Call Jesse to the sacrifice (1 Samuel 16:3).
    3. He Arrives in Bethlehem (1 Samuel 16:4-5).
      1. The fear of the people (1 Samuel 16:4; 1 Samuel 12:18)
      2. The obedience of the people (1 Samuel 16:5)
        1. They sanctify themselves (Exodus 19:22; Leviticus 11:44; Leviticus 20:7-8; Joshua 3:5; 2 Chronicles 29:5).
        2. They come to the sacrifice.
        3. Jesse and his sons come with them.
  2. GOD’S CHOICE OF DAVID (1 Samuel 16:6-13)
    1. God Rejects the Seven (1 Samuel 16:6-10).
      1. Samuel’s mistake (1 Samuel 16:6; cp. 1 Samuel 10:23-24); even God’s man can fall into the trap of looking on the outward appearance.
      2. God’s correction (1 Samuel 16:7)
        1. Not the outward appearance (John 7:24; 2 Corinthians 10:7)
        2. But the heart (2 Chronicles 16:9; Proverbs 16:2; Jeremiah 17:10; Acts 1:24)
      3. The pattern repeated (1 Samuel 16:8-10)
        1. With Abinadab (1 Samuel 16:8)
        2. With Shammah (1 Samuel 16:9)
        3. With the remaining sons (1 Samuel 16:10)
    2. God Chooses the Forgotten (1 Samuel 16:11-13).
      1. The fetching of David (1 Samuel 16:11; 1 Corinthians 1:26-29)
      2. The description of David (1 Samuel 16:12)
        1. Ruddy: of reddish complexion; an indication of youth and inexperience (1 Samuel 17:42)
        2. Beautiful countenance: refers to his face
        3. Goodly to look to
      3. The anointing of David (1 Samuel 16:13; cp. 1 Samuel 10:1)
        1. The horn of oil (Hebrews 1:9)
        2. The Spirit of the Lord (1 Samuel 16:18; 1 Samuel 18:12-14)
      4. The departure of Samuel (1 Samuel 16:13)
  3. SAUL’S EVIL SPIRIT FROM THE LORD (1 Samuel 16:14-18)
    1. An Evil Spirit from the Lord (1 Samuel 16:14-15)
      1. Note:  God can use even that which is evil to perform His own purpose (Psalm 78:49; Psalm 76:10). He may send evil in the sense that He removes His protective hand and allows it to come (Job 1:12; Job 2:6-7).
        1. First, we must understand that God is not the source of wickedness. The Bible teaches that sin originates from the Devil (1 John 3:8). He is also the father of the lie and was a murderer from the beginning (John 8:44). On the other hand, God cannot be tempted with evil or wicked acts and He does not tempt any man to commit these acts (James 1:13-14). God is holy and all that springs forth from Him is pure and good.
        2. Second, though God is not the source of wickedness, He often uses the wicked to perform His own purpose (Psalm 76:10). Here we learn that God will take man's wrath toward Him and turn it into praise. That wrath which is not to be turned into God's praise will be restrained.
        3. The sending of evil spirits by the Lord may be more common in Scripture than you think.
          1. In Psalm 78:49, God judged Israel "by sending evil angels among them."
          2. In Judges 9:23, "God sent an evil spirit between Abimelech and the men of Shechem."
          3. In 1 Kings 22:22, God sent a "lying spirit" in the mouth of the false prophets to send Ahab to his death.
          4. In 1 Samuel 16:14-15, God removed His Spirit from the disobedient Saul. This opened the door for an evil spirit to come and torment Saul.
        4. What we see in these passages follows a pattern. When God removes His protective hand, He often turns the person over to Satan for destruction or to an evil spirit for torment. The Devil and the evil spirits do the work, but God has allowed them to do what comes naturally to them for His own purpose. God does not commit wickedness, but He uses the wicked for His purpose.
      2. God’s Spirit departs (1 Samuel 16:14).
      3. An evil spirit takes His place (1 Samuel 16:14; Judges 9:23; 1 Kings 22:22).
      4. The evil spirit troubles Saul (1 Samuel 16:15; 1 Samuel 18:10; 1 Samuel 19:9-10).
    2. A Man to Play the Harp (1 Samuel 16:16-18)
      1. The recommendation of the servants (1 Samuel 16:16)
        1. Seek out a cunning player on a harp.
        2. Have him play when the evil spirit is upon thee.
        3. Note: Apparently it was thought that certain music would drive away evil spirits. Even the servants of Saul had some concept of the fact that music is spiritual. It can drive away evil spirits or it can draw in the evil spirits.
      2. The request of the king (1 Samuel 16:17)
        1. Provide a man that can play well.
        2. Bring him to me.
      3. The acquiring of David (1 Samuel 16:18)
        1. His talent in playing (1 Chronicles 13:8)
        2. His ability in war (Psalm 144:1)
        3. His character in matters (1 Samuel 18:14)
        4. His position with God (1 Samuel 13:14; Acts 13:22)
      4. Note: Notice how God providentially brings David to the royal court to learn of such matters.
  4. DAVID PLAYS HIS HARP FOR SAUL (1 Samuel 16:19-23)
    1. David Goes to Saul (1 Samuel 16:19-20).
      1. Saul sends for David (1 Samuel 16:19).
      2. Jesse sends David unto Saul (1 Samuel 16:20).
        1. David comes to Saul.
        2. He comes bearing gifts from Jesse.
          1. Bread
          2. Wine
          3. A kid
    2. David Becomes Saul’s Armourbearer (1 Samuel 16:21-22).
      1. David finds favor (1 Samuel 16:21).
        1. David stands before Saul.
        2. Saul loves him greatly.
        3. He becomes Saul’s armourbearer.
      2. Retained in the king’s court (1 Samuel 16:22)
    3. David Plays for Saul (1 Samuel 16:23).
      1. David plays the harp
      2. Saul is refreshed.
      3. The evil spirit departs – temporarily.
      4. Note: It was not just the opinion of Saul’s servants, but the music of David does indeed drive away the evil spirit from Saul.

CONCLUSION: When Saul was little in his own eyes (1 Samuel 15:17), God made him king. But he became proud when he was blessed and was rejected by the Lord. David was chosen as a man after God’s own heart. He was not perfect in his life, but he fully repented of his sins and never ceased to be a man after God’s own heart. Which of these men picture you? Which would you be?

David Reagan and Andrew Ray

Daily Proverb

Proverbs 24:2

For their heart studieth destruction, and their lips talk of mischief.