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Saul Turns Against David

Scripture Passage: 
1 Samuel 18:1-30; 1 Samuel 19:1-24

INTRODUCTION: David has already been anointed to be the next king, but the road to the throne will be a slow and painful one. In these chapters, we see the wisdom of David in dealing with matters and the presence of God with him. We also see multiple ways in which God protects David from destruction. In the end, God’s will prevails and David will be king.

  1. DAVID’S FRIENDSHIP WITH JONATHAN (1 Samuel 18:1-4)
    1. The Love of Jonathan (1 Samuel 18:1; 1 Samuel 20:17)
      1. The soul of Jonathan was knit with the soul of David.
      2. Jonathan loved David as his own soul.
        1. Passing the love of women (2 Samuel 1:25-27)
        2. This love is a picture of the love of Christ for us (Proverbs 18:24).
    2. The Covenant of Jonathan (1 Samuel 18:2-3)
      1. Saul kept David as his own (1 Samuel 18:2).
      2. Jonathan and David made a covenant (1 Samuel 18:3).
    3. The Gift of Jonathan (1 Samuel 18:4)
      1. Jonathan gave David his garments and weapons.
      2. This was an honorable gift (Esther 6:8).
  2. DAVID’S EXALTATION BY THE PEOPLE (1 Samuel 18:5-9)
    1. The Wisdom of David (1 Samuel 18:5; Ephesians 5:17; Colossians 4:5)
      1. David obeyed the commands of Saul.
      2. He behaved himself wisely (1 Samuel 18:14-15, 30).
      3. Saul set him over the men of war.
      4. He was accepted in the sight of Saul’s servants and the common people.
    2. The Success of David (1 Samuel 18:6-7; Joshua 1:7-9)
      1. His victory over the Philistines (1 Samuel 18:6)
      2. The song the women sang to him (1 Samuel 18:6-7); placing him over Saul
    3. The Enemy of David (1 Samuel 18:8-9)
      1. Saul despised David’s popularity (1 Samuel 18:8).
      2. Saul eyed David from that day forward (1 Samuel 18:9).
  3. SAUL’S HATRED OF DAVID (1 Samuel 18:10-16)
    1. Saul’s First Murder Attempt (1 Samuel 18:10-11)
      1. The evil spirit from the Lord returned (1 Samuel 18:10).
      2. Saul cast a javelin at David (1 Samuel 18:10-11).
    2. Saul’s Growing Conflict with David (1 Samuel 18:12-16)
      1. Saul feared the presence of God with David (1 Samuel 18:12).
      2. Saul sent David out to battle (1 Samuel 18:13).
      3. Saul feared David because of his wisdom (1 Samuel 18:14-15).
      4. All Israel and Judah loved David (1 Samuel 18:16).
  4. SAUL’S PLOT AGAINST DAVID (1 Samuel 18:17-30)
    1. Saul Promises His Daughter to David (1 Samuel 18:17-19).
      1. Hoping that David would be killed in battle (1 Samuel 18:17)
      2. Despite David’s claim of unworthiness (1 Samuel 18:18)
      3. Broken by giving the daughter to someone else (1 Samuel 18:19)
    2. Saul Sets Up a Second Plan (1 Samuel 18:20-25).
      1. He offers his second daughter Michal to David (1 Samuel 18:20-21).
      2. For a dowry of one hundred Philistine foreskins (1 Samuel 18:22-25)
    3. David Wins Michal as His Wife (1 Samuel 18:26-30).
      1. David brings two hundred foreskins and gets Michal (1 Samuel 18:26-27).
      2. Saul fears David even more (1 Samuel 18:28-30).
  5. JONATHAN’S INTERCESSION FOR DAVID (1 Samuel 19:1-7)
    1. Jonathan Warns David (1 Samuel 19:1-3).
      1. The plan to kill David (1 Samuel 19:1)
      2. The plan to approach Saul (1 Samuel 19:2-3)
    2. Jonathan Intercedes for David (1 Samuel 19:4-5; see Romans 8:26-27, 34; 1 Timothy 2:1).
      1. Jonathan speaks good of David unto his father (1 Samuel 19:4).
      2. Jonathan questions his father’s motive (1 Samuel 19:5).
    3. Jonathan Brings David Back to Saul (1 Samuel 19:6-7).
      1. Saul promises David’s safety (1 Samuel 19:6).
      2. Jonathan brings David back to his father (1 Samuel 19:7).
  6. DAVID’S ESCAPE FROM SAUL (1 Samuel 19:8-17)
    1. Further Victories of David (1 Samuel 19:8)
      1. David went to war again with the Philistines.
      2. He slew them with a great slaughter and they fled from him.
    2. Further Attempts to Murder David (1 Samuel 19:9-10)
      1. The evil spirit from the Lord returned (1 Samuel 19:9).
      2. Saul sought once again to smite David (1 Samuel 19:10).
    3. David’s Escape through a Window (1 Samuel 19:11-12; cp. Acts 9:23-25).
      1. Saul sent messengers to the house of David to watch him (1 Samuel 19:11).
      2. Michal let David down through a window for his safety (1 Samuel 19:12).
  7. DAVID’S PROTECTION BY SAMUEL (1 Samuel 19:18-24)
    1. David’s Refuge with Samuel (1 Samuel 19:18-19)
      1. David fled to see Samuel (1 Samuel 19:18).
      2. Saul received news of David’s whereabouts (1 Samuel 19:19).
    2. The Prophesying Messengers of Saul (1 Samuel 19:20-21)
      1. Saul sent messengers to take David (1 Samuel 19:20).
      2. Saul’s messengers were overtaken by God’s Spirit (1 Samuel 19:20-21).
    3. The Prophesying of Saul (1 Samuel 19:22-24; 1 Samuel 10:10-12; for comparison, contrast 1 Corinthians 14:32)

CONCLUSION: Saul continues to threaten the life of David, but the hand of God is upon David. Ultimately, David will escape and will eventually take the throne as promised by the Lord.

David Reagan and Andrew Ray

Daily Proverb

Proverbs 21:4

An high look, and a proud heart, and the plowing of the wicked, is sin.