The Birth of Samuel

Scripture Passage: 
1 Samuel 1:1-28

INTRODUCTION: This story occurs at the latter years of the time of the judges. Every man is doing that which is right in his own eyes. But just as in the days of Noah, there are some exceptions. Through one man (Elkanah) who remains faithful and one woman (Hannah) who cries out to God with all her heart, God brings a man into the world who will begin to bring Israel back to God. That man is Samuel.

  1. THE AFFLICTION OF HANNAH (1 Samuel 1:1-8)
    1. Her Husband: Elkanah (1 Samuel 1:1-3)
      1. His heritage (1 Samuel 1:1)
        1. His home
          1. A man of Ramathaim-zophim
          2. A man of Mount Ephraim
        2. His people
          1. The son of Jeroham
          2. An Ephrathite
      2. His two wives (1 Samuel 1:2; allowed under the law – Deuteronomy 21:15; but not God’s original plan – Matthew 19:4-5)
        1. Peninnah
        2. Hannah
      3. His devotion to God (1 Samuel 1:3)
        1. Went yearly (Luke 2:41)
        2. To Shiloh (Joshua 18:1)
    2. Her Womb (1 Samuel 1:4-5)
      1. The blessings of Peninnah (1 Samuel 1:4)
        1. Peninnah had sons and daughters.
        2. When it came time to make a sacrifice, Elkanah gave portions to her sons and daughters.
      2. The barrenness of Hannah (1 Samuel 1:5)
        1. The support of her husband (1 Samuel 1:5a)
          1. Elkanah gave Hannah a “worthy” portion at the time of sacrifice.
          2. Elkanah loved Hannah.
        2. The shutting of her womb (1 Samuel 1:5b)
    3. Her Adversary (1 Samuel 1:6-7; see 1 Peter 5:8)
      1. Provoked her because she had no children (1 Samuel 1:6)
        1. The extent of her provoking – “her adversary also provoked her sore.”
        2. The purpose of her provoking – “for to make her fret”
        3. The source of her provoking – “because the LORD had shut up her womb”
      2. Provoked her continually (1 Samuel 1:7)
        1. The time of provoking – “year by year”
        2. The place of provoking – “the house of the LORD”
        3. The enemy responsible for provoking – “she provoked her.”
          1. Hannah’s adversary is a “she” and is certainly Peninnah (cp. Genesis 16:4).
          2. The “he” at the beginning of the verse is likely a reference back to Elkanah and his faithfulness to yearly sacrifices.
        4. The effect of provoking – “therefore she wept, and did not eat.”
    4. Her Sorrow (1 Samuel 1:8)
      1. Elkanah attempts to comfort Hannah.
      2. He asks her four questions. The number four is often connected to stability. Elkanah is attempting to stabilize his wife with these questions.
        1. Why weepest thou?
        2. Why eatest thou not?
        3. Why is thy heart grieved?
        4. Am not I better to thee than ten sons?
  2. THE PRAYER OF HANNAH (1 Samuel 1:9-18)
    1. Her Bitterness of Soul (1 Samuel 1:9-10; Job 7:11)
      1. She rose up and went to the temple of the Lord (1 Samuel 1:9).
      2. She prayed unto the Lord (1 Samuel 1:10).
        1. She was in bitterness of soul.
        2. She wept sore.
    2. Her Vow to the Lord (1 Samuel 1:11)
      1. Her condition: a man child
      2. Her promise
        1. To give him to the Lord
        2. To let no razor touch his head (Judges 13:5; Numbers 6:2, 5)
    3. Her False Accusation by Eli (1 Samuel 1:12-16)
      1. Eli’s lack of spiritual discernment (1 Samuel 1:12-14)
        1. Eli judged based on appearance (1 Samuel 1:12-13).
          1. He marked her mouth (1 Samuel 1:12).
          2. She spake in her heart; only her lips moved, but her voice was not heard (1 Samuel 1:13).
        2. Eli trusted his judgment with no evidence (1 Samuel 1:14) – He accused her of drunkenness with no concrete evidence.
      2. Hannah’s defense of her conduct (1 Samuel 1:15-16)
        1. She tells of her sorrow (1 Samuel 1:15-16).
          1. “I am a woman of a sorrowful spirit” (1 Samuel 1:15).
          2. “Out of the abundance of my complaint and grief have I spoken hitherto” (1 Samuel 1:16).
        2. She clears her testimony (1 Samuel 1:15-16).
          1. “I have drunk neither wine nor strong drink” (1 Samuel 1:15).
          2. “Count not thine handmaid for a daughter of Belial” (1 Samuel 1:16).
    4. Her Request Granted (1 Samuel 1:17-18; 1 John 5:14-15)
      1. Eli blesses Hannah (1 Samuel 1:17).
      2. Hannah is comforted (1 Samuel 1:18).
  3. THE BIRTH OF SAMUEL (1 Samuel 1:19-23)
    1. The Child Given (1 Samuel 1:19-20)
      1. The Lord remembered Hannah (1 Samuel 1:19; 1 Samuel 1:11; Genesis 8:1).
      2. The child was named Samuel (1 Samuel 1:20) meaning asked of God.
    2. The Child Weaned (1 Samuel 1:21-23)
      1. Hannah’s request (1 Samuel 1:21-22)
      2. Elkanah’s permission (1 Samuel 1:23)
      3. The Lord’s Word (1 Samuel 1:23; 2 Samuel 7:25)
  4. THE GIVING OF SAMUEL (1 Samuel 1:24-28)
    1. Brought to the House of the Lord (1 Samuel 1:24)
    2. Brought to the Priest of the Lord (1 Samuel 1:25-27)
    3. Given to the Service of the Lord (1 Samuel 1:28)

CONCLUSION: This chapter gives wonderful examples of both faithfulness (Elkanah) and faith (Hannah). They had the excuse that they lived in a wicked age but did not use it. We can live the same way today if we will trust in the Lord.

David Reagan and Andrew Ray

Daily Proverb

Proverbs 10:30

The righteous shall never be removed: but the wicked shall not inhabit the earth.