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The Gospel of John VIII - Lesson 3

                          The Cross and the Tomb                                   John 19:1-42

    1. The Unjust Treatment of Jesus Christ (John 19:1-4)
      1. The scourging of Christ (John 19:1)
        1. An attempt by Pilate to appease the Jews (Luke 23:16)
        2. An act prophesied by Jesus Himself (Luke 18:31-33)
        3. A cruel punishment that lacerated the flesh (Psalm 22:17; Isaiah 52:14)
      2. The mocking of Christ (John 19:2; Psalm 22:6-8)
        1. The crown of thorns (John 19:2)
          1. Made by the soldiers
          2. Put on His head
        2. A purple robe (John 19:2)
          1. A purple robe (John 19:2; Mark 15:17); indicating His royal position as King of kings and Lord of lords
          2. A scarlet robe (Matthew 27:28); indicating the fact that He became sin for us (Isaiah 1:18; 2 Corinthians 5:21)
          3. A gorgeous robe (Luke 23:11); indicating the glorious beauty of the One who would leave the splendor of heaven in order to save our souls by becoming sin for our sakes
      3. The smiting of Christ (John 19:3)
        1. Their mocking praise (John 19:3)
        2. His continued torture (John 19:3) – “they smote him with their hands” (Matthew 27:29-30; Isaiah 50:6; Isaiah 52:14; Isaiah 53:3).
          1. Hit with their hands
          2. Hit with the reed
          3. Spit upon
      4. The testimony of Pilate (John 19:4)
        1. I bring him forth to you.
        2. I find no fault in him (John 18:38; John 19:6).
      5. Note: The gospel record of the trial and crucifixion of Christ gives a sevenfold testimony of the innocence of Jesus Christ:
        1. Judas – “I have sinned in that I have betrayed the innocent blood” (Matthew 27:3-5).
        2. Pilate’s wife – “Have nothing to do with that just man” (Matthew 27:19).
        3. Those who stood with the centurion – “Truly this was the Son of God” (Matthew 27:54).
        4. Herod – “Nothing worthy of death” (Luke 23:15)
        5. The dying thief – “This man hath done nothing amiss” (Luke 23:41).
        6. The Roman centurion – “Certainly this was a righteous man” (Luke 23:47)
        7. Pilate – “I find no fault in him” (John 18:38; John 19:4, 6).
    2. The Unjust Sentence against Jesus Christ (John 19:5-15)
      1. The verdict of the Jews (John 19:5-6)
        1. The presentation of Jesus (John 19:5)
          1. Wearing the crown of thorns and robe
          2. “Behold the man!” (John 19:5)
            1. Behold the virgin born Son (Isaiah 7:14).
            2. Behold the Lamb of God (John 1:29).
            3. Behold the man of the cross (John 19:5).
        2. The rejection of Jesus by the Jews (John 19:6)
          1. The chief priests and officers
          2. “Crucify him, crucify him.”
        3. The attempt to pass responsibility (John 19:6)
          1. Take Him yourself.
          2. I find no fault in Him.
      2. Pilate’s fear of God (John 19:7-8)
        1. The claim of Jesus to be the Son of God (John 19:7)
        2. The law that He should be put to death (John 19:7; Leviticus 24:16); of course, Jesus did not blaspheme God.
        3. The greater fear of Pilate (John 19:8)
          1. He thought he might be dealing with someone who had some claim to the Jewish throne.
          2. Now he realizes that he is also dealing with someone who may have claim to being deity.
      3. Christ’s testimony of power (John 19:9-11; Romans 13:1)
        1. Pilate’s further interrogation (John 19:9-10)
          1. Whence art thou? (John 19:9)
            1. He wants to know if Jesus claims to be from heaven.
            2. Jesus refuses to answer.
          2. Speakest thou not unto me? (John 19:10)
            1. I have power to crucify you.
            2. I have power to release you.
        2. Jesus’ answer to Pilate (John 19:11)
          1. Any power against me must be permitted from heaven (Daniel 5:18-20; Romans 13:1).
          2. He that delivered me has the greater sin (Matthew 27:1-4).
      4. Pilate’s fear of man (John 19:12-15; Proverbs 29:25; John 12:43)
        1. The threat of the Jews (John 19:12)
          1. Note: They had no love of Pilate (Luke 13:1).
          2. To release Jesus would be an affront to Caesar.
          3. Any man who makes himself king speaks against Caesar.
        2. The final rejection of the Jews (John 19:13-15)
          1. The presentation of Jesus (John 19:13-14)
            1. Sat down in the judgment seat
              1. The Pavement; compare 2 Kings 16:17 where King Ahaz removed the brazen oxen from under the sea that Solomon built for the temple and placed the sea on “a pavement of stones.” In this and other acts, Ahaz surrendered to idolatry (2 Kings 16:10-16). In comparison, when Pilate brings Jesus to the Pavement, he has surrendered Him to the desires of the wicked Jews.
              2. Gabbatha
            2. At the preparation of the Passover
              1. About the sixth hour
              2. Most likely, this is Roman time (6AM) and not Hebrew time (Noon), although other explanations have been given by Bible students.
            3. With Pilate’s declaration, Behold your King!
          2. The final position of the Jews (John 19:15)
            1. Away with Him (Matthew 27:24-25; Acts 3:13-15).
            2. We have no king but Caesar (1 Samuel 8:5-7; Hosea 3:4).
    1. The Path to the Cross (John 19:16-17)
      1. A path of rejection (John 19:14-15; Isaiah 53:3; Psalm 94:20-21)
      2. A path of surrender (John 19:16; Isaiah 53:7)
        1. Jesus delivered
        2. Jesus taken
        3. Jesus led away (Isaiah 53:7)
      3. A path of labor (John 19:17; Matthew 27:31-32)
        1. Jesus bore His cross (Genesis 22:6 – wood laid on Isaac).
        2. Jesus went to the place of crucifixion (Matthew 27:33; Mark 15:22).
          1. The place of a skull – Gentile name is Calvary (Luke 23:33).
          2. Called in the Hebrew, Golgotha – a place of death
            1. Bethesda – a place of mercy (John 5:2)
            2. Gabbatha – a place of judgment (John 19:13)
          3. A place outside the city (Hebrews 13:12-13; Leviticus 16:27)
          4. A place “nigh to the city” (John 19:20)
      4. A path of physical suffering (John 19:1-5, 18; Isaiah 53:5-7)
      5. A path of public disgrace and shame (Mark 15:19-32; Psalm 69:4-9)
      6. A path of darkness (Mark 15:33)
      7. A path of boundless suffering (Isaiah 53:6; 2 Corinthians 5:21; Psalm 88:6-7, 16, 18)
      8. A path of substitution (1 Peter 3:18; Galatians 2:20)
      9. A path of a finished work (John 19:30; John 17:4; Revelation 21:6)
    2. The Person on the Cross (John 19:18-24)
      1. His portion among the wicked (John 19:18; Isaiah 53:9, 12)
        1. Crucified with Him
        2. Crucified on either side of Him
          1. Thieves (Matthew 27:38)
          2. Malefactors (Luke 23:32)
      2. The posting of His title (John 19:19-22)
        1. The title (John 19:19-20)
          1. Written by Pilate (John 19:19)
          2. Put on His cross (John 19:19)
          3. “JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS” (John 19:19)
          4. Read by many of the Jews (John 19:20)
          5. Written in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin (John 19:20)
        2. The argument concerning the title (John 19:21-22)
          1. The Jews wanted the wording softened (John 19:21).
          2. Pilate refused to change the wording (John 19:22).
      3. The parting of His garments (John 19:23-24)
        1. The garments parted into four parts (John 19:23)
        2. The coat was without seam (John 19:23).
        3. They cast lots for the coat (John 19:24).
        4. The scripture was fulfilled (John 19:24; Psalm 22:18).
    3. Those Who Stood by the Cross (John 19:25-27); Note: These five were the only ones who had the courage to stand “by the cross.” They had obviously died to self and did not fear the wrath of the Roman soldiers.
      1. Mary, the mother of Jesus (John 19:25a)
      2. Mary’s sister (John 19:25b); probably a sister-in-law
      3. Mary, the wife of Cleophas (John 19:25c)
      4. Mary Magdalene (John 19:25d; Mark 16:9)
      5. The apostle John (John 19:26-27)
        1. Mary told to look to John for support (John 19:26)
        2. John told to take care of Mary (John 19:27)
        3. John took Mary into his own home (John 19:27).
  3. THE DEATH OF JESUS CHRIST (John 19:28-37)
    1. The Expression of His Suffering (John 19:28-29)
      1. He cried, I thirst (John 19:28).
      2. He fulfilled the scriptures (John 19:28; Psalm 22:15; Psalm 69:21).
      3. They gave Him vinegar (John 19:29).
        1. Put upon hyssop – picture of cleansing (Psalm 51:7)
        2. Put to His mouth
    2. The Completion of His Work on the Cross (John 19:30)
      1. He received the vinegar; Note: There were two occasions where Jesus was offered vinegar. The first He refused (Matthew 27:34) and the second He received (Matthew 27:48).
      2. He said, It is finished.
      3. He bowed His head.
      4. He gave up the ghost (Genesis 25:8).
David Reagan

Daily Proverb

Proverbs 25:15

By long forbearing is a prince persuaded, and a soft tongue breaketh the bone.