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The Passover

INTRODUCTION:  Just as our day of salvation is a day of new beginnings for us (2 Corinthians 5:17), so the Passover is a day of new beginnings for the Israelites (Exodus 12:2). They start their calendar in a new place when they are redeemed by the blood of the Lamb. No wonder Jesus is called our “passover” (1 Corinthians 5:7). When the angel of judgment comes to your door, will he pass over you because you are under the blood?

  1. THE PASSOVER INTRODUCED (Exodus 12:1-14)
    1. A New Beginning (Exodus 12:1-2)
      1. This month shall be a beginning of months (Exodus 12:2).
      2. It will be the first month of the year (Exodus 12:2).
      3. This is the month Abib (Deuteronomy 16:1).
        1. Also called Nisan
        2. First in the sacred calendar and seventh in the secular calendar
        3. Corresponds with March through April
        4. It is the time of the latter rain; beginning of barley and flax harvest.
        5. It contains the feasts of Passover, Unleavened Bread and Firstfruits.
    2. Choosing a Lamb (Exodus 12:3-5)
      1. On a certain day the tenth day (Exodus 12:3)
      2. According to the number in the home (Exodus 12:3-4)
        1. Every man shall choose a lamb according to the house of their fathers (Exodus 12:3).
        2. If the household is too small for the lamb, then let them share with their neighbor (Exodus 12:4).
      3. The nature of the lamb (Exodus 12:5)
        1. It shall be without blemish.
        2. It shall be a male of the first year.
        3. It shall be taken out from among the sheep or the goats.
    3. Keeping the Lamb (Exodus 12:6)
      1. The lamb is taken from among the flock on the tenth day of the first month.
      2. The lamb is kept until the fourteenth day of the same month.
    4. Killing the Lamb (Exodus 12:6-7)
      1. The lamb is killed in the evening of the fourteenth day (Exodus 12:6).
      2. The blood is applied to the two side posts and the upper post (Exodus 12:7).
      3. Notice by omission that we know the blood was not to be applied to the threshold of the door. Symbolically, we are to go through the blood, but we are not to tread over it (Hebrews 10:29).
    5. Partaking of the Lamb (Exodus 12:7-11)
      1. The place of partaking - in the home where the blood has been applied (Exodus 12:7)
      2. The time of partaking - it shall be eaten that night (Exodus 12:8).
      3. The condition of the lamb (Exodus 12:8-10)
        1. The flesh shall be roasted with fire, and eaten with unleavened bread and bitter herbs (Exodus 12:8-9).
        2. Nothing shall remain until the morning, but if any remains it shall be burned with fire (Exodus 12:10).
      4. The condition of the partaker (Exodus 12:11)
        1. With girded loins
        2. With shoes on their feet
        3. With their staff in their hand
        4. With haste
        5. Note: A couple of times in scripture we read of the Lord instructing His people to take their shoes off because of the holiness of the event, yet this time the people are to make sure their shoes are on. The Passover is holy, but it is also the time of Israels deliverance. The people must be ready to leave Egypt. The people must be ready to leave behind the life of bondage and walk in a life of obedience to the commands of God. The girded loins, the shoes on the feet, and the staff in hand all point to this fact.
    6. The Protection of the Lamb (Exodus 12:12-13)
      1. The coming judgment (Exodus 12:12)
        1. The Lord will pass through Egypt and smite the firstborn of man and beast.
        2. The Lord will execute judgment against all the gods of Egypt.
      2. The escape available (Exodus 12:13)
        1. The blood shall be a token upon the houses of the people of God.
        2. The presence of the blood will save from destruction.
    7. The Ordinance Instituted (Exodus 12:14)
      1. This day is to be a memorial to the people of God.
      2. The people of God shall keep it as a feast to the Lord throughout their generations.
      3. Note: It is important to grasp that there was only one Passover and every mention of the Passover after that was merely a memorial or observance of the actual Passover.
  2. THE FEAST OF UNLEAVENED BREAD (Exodus 12:15-20)
    1. The Partaking of Bread (Exodus 12:15)
      1. Seven days the people were to eat unleavened bread (Exodus 12:15).
      2. The first day all unleavened bread was to be removed from the home (Exodus 12:15).
      3. Anyone partaking of unleavened bread during this time would be cut off from Israel (Exodus 12:15).
    2. Holy Convocations (Exodus 12:16)
      1. The first day
      2. The seventh day
      3. No work was to be done on these days.
    3. The Reason for the Observance Given (Exodus 12:17)
    4. The Time of Observance (Exodus 12:18)
      1. The beginning the fourteenth day of the first month
      2. The ending the twenty-first day of the first month
    5. The Separation of Leaven (Exodus 12:19-20)
    1. The Passover (Exodus 12:21-23)
      1. The people are to draw out a lamb according to their families and kill it (Exodus 12:21).
      2. The people are to strike the lintel and the side posts of the door with the blood (Exodus 12:22).
      3. None shall go out of their doors until the morning (Exodus 12:22).
      4. The homes where the blood is found will be safe from the judgment of God (Exodus 12:23).
    2. Future Observance of the Passover (Exodus 12:24-27)
      1. This observance shall be an ordinance for Israel for ever (Exodus 12:24).
      2. This ordinance is to be observed in the land of promise (Exodus 12:25).
      3. This ordinance is to be explained to the next generation (Exodus 12:26-27).
    3. The Obedience of the People (Exodus 12:28)
  4. THE JUDGMENT OF GOD FALLS (Exodus 12:29-39)
    1. The Firstborn of Egypt Die (Exodus 12:29-30).
      1. The extent of the judgment (Exodus 12:29)
        1. From the firstborn of Pharaoh to the firstborn of the prisoner
        2. All the firstborn of the cattle (Remember that this includes horses, asses, camels, oxen and sheep.)
      2. The effects of the judgment (Exodus 12:30)
    2. The Children of Israel Are Sent Out (Exodus 12:31-36).
      1. The urgency of Pharaoh (Exodus 12:31-33)
        1. Ye and the children of Israel must go (Exodus 12:31).
        2. Take your flocks and herds (Exodus 12:32).
      2. The spoiling of the Egyptians (Exodus 12:33-36)
        1. The urgency of departure (Exodus 12:33-34)
        2. The borrowing of goods from the Egyptians (Exodus 12:35-36)
    3. The Departure of Israel (Exodus 12:37-39)
      1. Six hundred thousand men depart on foot (Exodus 12:37). (Note: This does not include the women and children.)
      2. A mixed multitude went up with Israel (Exodus 12:38).
      3. Israel baked unleavened bread for the journey (Exodus 12:39).
  5. THE LAW OF THE PASSOVER (Exodus 12:40-51)
    1. Israels Time in Egypt (Exodus 12:40-42)
    2. The Law of Observing the Passover (Exodus 12:43-49)
      1. Only for the circumcised (Exodus 12:43-45, 47-49)
      2. Cannot be carried from house to house (Exodus 12:46)
      3. No bone is to be broken (Exodus 12:46).
    3. The Complete Deliverance (Exodus 12:50-51)

CONCLUSION:  The Lord is faithful to His people and He delivers them by a strong and mighty hand. The Egyptians suffer the loss of their firstborn, while innocent lambs take the place of the firstborn of Israel.