Jesus is called the Son of David fourteen times in the New Testament. Twelve of these times, Son is capitalized. Two times it is not (Matthew 1:1; 12:23). In the Bible, son can have several meanings. So, although it can refer to the biological and immediate son of an earthly father, it can also have other meanings.
For example, to be a son can mean to be a direct descendant. Joseph, the husband of Mary, is called the "son of David" in Matthew 1:20. That means that he was a direct descendant of David and so David was a many-greats grandfather to him. This is true of Jesus through Mary (the genealogical line of Luke 3). Jesus was a son of David through her.
However, the New Testament Jews knew the title, "Son of David," as another title for the Messiah. Jesus mentioned that the scribes taught that "Christ is the Son of David" (Mark 12:35). When Jesus healed a man who was both blind and deaf by casting an unclean spirit out of him, the people said, "Is not this the son of David?" (Mathew 12:22-23). They were identifying Jesus as the Christ, the Messiah who was promised to come. Several reasons then might be given for this title being applied to Christ.
- The Messiah was to sit on the throne of David (Isaiah 9:6-7; Jeremiah 23:5)
- Therefore, it was necessary that the Messiah was born in the direct line of David (Psalm 132:11; Acts 13:22-23).
- This promise of a king to sit on the throne of David was fulfilled in Jesus Christ (Luke 1:31-33)
And, since Jesus was the Son of David, He was also the King of the Jews (Matthew 2:2; 27:11).